Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) (c. 540 bc.)
The strength of high-minded Parmenides is not full of opinions, who lifted up thoughts from deceptive appearances.
Parmenideen, tuon ylevämielisen, luuloton voima, joka näkyväisen petturuudesta sai eroon ajatukset.
Περί φύσεως (Παρμενίδης)
- Diels, Hermann & Kranz, Walther. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. 28 B 1-19, Alle Fragmente
- THE FRAGMENTS OF PARMENIDES. A Critical Text with Introduction and Translation, the Ancient Testimonia and a Commentary by A. H. COXON. Revised and Expanded Edition edited with new Translations by Richard McKirahan and a new Preface by Malcolm Schofield. Parmenides Publishing, Las Vegas, Zurich, Athens 2009.
- Parmenides of Elea: A Verse Translation with Interpretative Essays and Commentary to the Text. Martin J. Henn. Contributions in Philosophy, Number 88. Praeger, Westport 2003.
- Parmenides: On Nature Translated by John Burnet, 1892.
Περι φυσεως On Nature, Luonnosta.
The Proem: The journey (κέλευθος)
Fragment 1. Quotes from Sext. adv.math. 7,111; Simpl. in cael. 557, 25.
1.1 The mares that carry me as far as my spirit (θυμὸς) might reach
1.2 were conveying me, when they led me into the many-voiced way
1.3 of the deity (δαίμων), who leads the knowing one through all things
1.4 Thereon was I carried, for thereon the much-guided mares were carrying me
1.5 Pulling the chariot, maidens led the way.
1.6 The axle’s nave shrilled like the panpipe
1.7 as it blazed (for it was driven by two whirling
1.8 wheels, one on each side) even while hastened to escort me,
1.9. maidens, Daughters of the Sun, having left the House of Night
1.10 for the light, having pushed veils from their faces with their hands
1.11 There are the gates of the paths of Night and Day,
1.12. And a lintel and a threshold of stone surround them
1.13. Themselves aetherial, filled with grand doors
1.14 Justice (δίκη), many-avenging, holds their alternating keys
1.15. Persuading her with gentle words the maidens
1.16 skillfully persuaded her that she should push away the bolted bar
1.17 Swiftly from the gates; and these made of the doors
1.18 A gaping gap as they were opened wide
1.19 Swinging in turn in their sockets the brazen posts
1.20 Fitted with rivets and pins; straight through them at that point
1.21. The maidens drive the chariot and mares along the broad way.
1.22. And the goddess received me kindly, and took my right hand with her hand,
1.23 And uttered speech and thus addressed me:
1.24 “O youth, accompanied by immortal charioteers,
1.25 and the mares who carry you to my abode,
1.26 Welcome—for it is not an evil destiny (μοῖρα) which has sent you forth to travel
1.27 On this road (though it is far from the beaten path of man),
1.28 but Right (Themis) and Justice (Dikē). You must learn all things,
1.29 Both the unmoved heart of persuasive truth (ἀλήθεια)
1.30 as well as the opinions (δόξας) of mortals, for which there is no true conviction (πίστις).
1.31. Nevertheless you shall learn this too, how what seems
1.32. Must been acceptable, going through all of everything
TRUTH alêtheia (B2-B8.51a)
2.1 Come now and I shall tell, and do you receive through hearing the tale
2.2. which are the only ways of inquiry for thinking
2.3 the one: that is and that is not, is not to be
2.4 Is the journey of persuasion (Πειθώ), for it attends truth (ἀλήθεια)
2.5 the other: that is not and it must not be
2.6 This I tell you, utterly inscrutable shortcut
2.7 for you can neither know what is not (for it cannot be done) nor point it out
3. τὸ γὰρ αὐτὸ νοεῖν ἐστίν τε καὶ εἶναι.
For thinking and being are the same.
Sillä ajatteleminen (noein) ja oleminen ovat sama
7.1 Never shall this prevail, that things that are not are (εἶναι μὴ ἐόντα)
7.2 But you, withhold your thought from this way of inquiry
7.3 Nor let habit force you, along this manifold route
7.4 To count on aimless eye and echoing ear
7. 5 and tongue. But judge by reasoning the very contentious test
7.6 uttered by me
8.1 One story of a route
8.2 Is left: that it is (ὡς ἔστιν) ; on this there are signs
8.3 very many, that it is unoriginated (ἀγένητος) and indestructible (ἀνώλεθρος)
8.4 entire (οὖλος), unique (μονογενής), unmoved (ἀτρεμής) and endless (ἀτέλεστος)
8. 5 Never was it, nor shall it be, since now it is, all together
8.6 One (ἕν), continuous (συνεχής). For what birth would you seek of it?
8.7 How and whence grown? Not from what-is-not will I allow
8.8 you to say or to think; for not sayable or thinkable
8.9 is that it is not. And what need could have impelled it to grow
8.10 later or sooner, if it began from nothing?
8.11 Thus it must be wholly or not at all.
8. 12 Nor ever from what-is-not will the strength of faith allow
8. 13 anything to come to be beside it. Therefore neither its coming-to-be
8.14 nor perishing has justice (δίκη) allowed by relaxing her shackles
8.15 but holds fast; the judgement (κρίσις) about these matters is
8.16 Is or is not? [Being or not being] (ἔστιν ἢ οὐκ ἔστιν)
Judgement is made, as is necessary
8.17 to leave the unthinkable, unnameable – for it is not a true (ἀληθής)
8.18 way -and allow the other to be and to be truthful (ἐτήτυμος)