Schmitt: Writings 1933-1945

Carl Schmitt: Writings from Nazi period 1933-1945

Total State in Germany 1933

  • “Weiterentwicklung des totalen Staats in Deutschland.” In Verfassungsrechtliche Aufsätze. Ducker & Humbolt, Berlin 1958, 359-71.
  • Futher developmet of the Total State in Germany.“  In Carl Schmitt: Four Articles. Plutarch Press, Washington 1991.
  • Totaalisen valtion edelleen kehittyminen Saksassa.

National -Socialist State 1933


  • Staat, Bewegung, Volk. Die Dreigliederung der politischen Einheit, Hamburg 1933
  • State, movement, people. The triadic structure of the political unity. Simona Draghici, trans. Plutarch Press, 2001.
  • Valtio, Liike, Kansa. Poliittisen ykseyden kolminaisuus.

“All public law of the present German State rests on its own ground.”

“The primary importance of the political leadership is a fundamental principle of the present- day public law.”

“It goes without saying that the National-Socialist Party is in no way a ‘party’ in the sense of the now superseded pluralistic- party system. It is the leading body that carries the State and the People.”

hitlerleading“The strength of the National-Socialist State resides in the fact that it is dominated and imbued from top to bottom and in every atom of its being by the idea of leadership.”

“The election must be replaced by selection.”

“Without the principle of ethnic identity (artgleichheit), the German National-Socialist State cannot exist, and its legal life would be unimaginable… all the questions and answers require an ethnic identity without which a total leader-State could not stand its ground a single day.”

The Night of the Long Knives 1934


  • Der Führer schützt das Recht. Deutsche Juristen-Zeitung, Heft 15, 1.8.1934, p. 945-950.
  • The Leader protects the Law.
  • Johtaja suojelee oikeutta.

Types of Juristic Thought 1934

  • Über die drei Arten des rechtswissenschaftlichen Denkens. Hanseatische Verlagsanstal, Hamburg 1934.
  • On the Three Types of Juristic Thought. Joseph Bendersky, trans. (Praegar, 2004).
  • Oikeustieteellisen ajattelun kolme lajia.

“Every jurist who consciously or unconsciously bases his work on the concept of Recht, conceives of this right as a rule or as a decision, or as a concrete order and formation.

Leviathan 1938


  • Der Leviathan in der Staatslehre des Thomas Hobbes. Sinn und Fehlschlag eines politischen Symbols. Hamburg : Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg 1938.
  • The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes: Meaning and Failure of a Political Symbol. George D. Schwab & Erna Hilfstein, trans. Greenwood Press, 1996.
  • Leviathan Thomas Hobbesin valtioteoriassa. Poliittisen symbolin merkitys ja epäonnistuminen.

hortusdelicarum“Hobbes’ Leviathan, a combination of god and man. animal and machine, is the mortal god who brings to man peace and security.”

“Image of Leviathan overpowers and overshadows all other constructions.”

“The relation between protection and obedience is the cardinal point of Hobbes’ construction of the state.”

“The question of faith and miracle became its misfortune.”

“The distinction of inner and outer became for the mortal god a sickness unto death.”

“What could have been a grand signal of restoration of the vital energy and political unity began to be perceived in a ghostly light and became a grotesque horror picture.”

Land and Sea 1942


  • Land und Meer. Eine weltgeschichtliche Betrachtung. Reclam, Leipzig 1942.
  • Land and Sea. Simona Draghici, trans. Plutarch Press, 1997.
  • Maa ja meri. Maailmanhistoriallinen tarkastelu.

“Are we the children of the earth or of the sea?”

“To imagine a “maritime globe” would seem strange, indeed.

“World history is the history of the wars waged by maritime powers against land or continental powers and by land powers against sea or maritime powers.”

“Man has a clear awareness of his space, which historically is subject to profound perturbations. To the plurality of forms of existence corresponds an equal plurality of spaces.”