a”Philosophers had to become kings or those whom we now call our kings and rulers had to become philosophical so that the political and philosophical power (dunamis te politikē kai philosophia) are united.
- Thrasyllus: On justice, Oikeudenmukaisuudesta (δικαιοσύνη).
- Πολιτεία. Platonis Rempublicam. recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instruxit S.R.. Slings. Oxonii : E Typographeo Clarendoniano ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2003.
- Slings, S. R. Critical Notes on Plato’s Politeia, ed. G. Boter and J. M. van Ophuijsen. Leiden, 2005.
- Πολιτεία. Plato. Platonis Opera, ed. John Burnet. Oxford University Press. 1903.
- Republic. Plato. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. 5 & 6 translated by Paul Shorey. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969.
- The Republic. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Translated by Tom Griffith. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2000.
- The Republic of Plato. Translated by Allan Bloom. New York, 1968, 1991.
- Republic. Translated by Reeve. Indianapolis, 2004.
- The Republic of Plato. Edited by James Adam. Volume 1 & 2. Cambridge University Press 1902, 2009.
- Plato Valtio. Platon: Teokset IV. Suomentanut Marja Itkonen-Kaila. Otava, Helsinki 1981.
- La République. Translated by G. Leroux. Paris, 2002.
- Der Staat (Über das Gerechte). Translated by R. Rufener. Zürich, Düsseldorf, 2000.
- Sartori, F., trans. Platone: La Repubblica. Translated by F. Santori. Introduction by M. Vegetti. Rome, 1966, 1997.
BOOK I (327a-354c): APORIA OF JUSTICE
What is Righteousness, Uprightness (δικαιοσύνη, dikaiosyne)
Descent to the Piraeus: Thracian Fest
Cephalus. Justice of the Older Generation (328b–331d)
- Justice (dikaiosunē) as truthfulness (alētheia) and paying back what one has received from anyone.
Polemarchus. Justice of the Middle Generation (331e–336a)
- Justice (dikaiosunē) as doing good to friends and bad (kakos) to enemies
Thrasymachus. Justice of the Sophist (336b-339b)
- Justice is as the advantage of the stronger (kreissōn)
Justice as a Good and Aporia of Justice (339c-354c)
“Hence the result of the discussion, so far as I am concerned, is that I know nothing. For when I do not know what justice (dikaios) is, I will hardly know whether it is a kind of virtue (aretē) or not, or whether a person who has it is happy (eudaimōn) or unhappy.”
BOOK II (357a-383c): INJUSTICE AND JUSTICE
Ring of Gyges
Genesis of the Polis
The City of Pigs
The Guardians (fylakes)
The Muses and education of the souls
BOOK III (386a-417b): EDUCATION (paideia)
The Politics of Muses
The Care of the Body
Noble Lie (gennaion pseudos)
BOOK IV (419a-445e): THE ORDER OF THE SOUL AND THE STATE
- Prudence (φρόνησις, phronēsis)
- Courage (ἀνδρεία, andreia)
- Temperance (σωφροσύνη, sōphrosynē)
- Justice (δικαιοσύνη, dikaiosynē)
Shepherds of the City
Tripartite constitution of the soul
- Reasonable (λογιστικόν)
- Passionate (θυμοειδές)
- Appetitive (ἐπιθυμητικόν)
The Constitution of Men and Polis
BOOK V (449a-480a): THE THREE WAVES (κῦμα)
Nature (φύσις) (451d-457b)
- The natural sameness and difference
- The law of women – according to nature
- The same pursuits and education – female and male guardians
Common (κοινός) (457c-473c)
- Communality of guardians, of women and children
- Regulated sexual intercourse and reproduction
Justice (δίκαιος) (573d – 541)
- Combination of philosophical and political power (δύναμίς )
- The philosopher kings
“Philosophers had to become kings or those whom we now call our kings and rulers had to become philosophical so that the political and philosophical power (dunamis te politikē kai philosophia) becomes together.”
Who are the Philosophers?
Dream state and awakening
BOOK VI (484a-511e): THE PHILOSOPHER AND THE GOOD
The Nature of Philosopher
The Ship of State
The Idea of Good
The Parable of Sun
BOOK VII (514a-541b):THE PARABLE OF CAVE
The Education of Philosopher.
The Allegory of Cave
BOOK VIII (543a-569c): THE DECLINE OF CONSTITUTIONS
“Everything that comes-to-be must decay (ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεὶ γενομένῳ παντὶ φθορά ἐστιν)
The origins of the first strife
- Philosophical aristocracy
- The noble Tyranny. The fourth and final malady of a polis
BOOK IX (571a-592b): Tyrant and Philosopher
BOOK X (595a-621d): Mimesis and The Myth of Er
Rejection of Mimetic Art
Immortality of the Soul
Rewards of Justice
Judgment of the Dead