Πολιτεία, Politeia

a”Philosophers had to become kings or those whom we now call our kings and rulers had to become philosophical so that the political and philosophical power (dunamis te politikē kai philosophia) are united.

Πολιτεία, Politeia 

  • Thrasyllus: On justice, Oikeudenmukaisuudesta (δικαιοσύνη).

 

  • Πολιτεία. Platonis Rempublicam. recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instruxit S.R.. Slings. Oxonii : E Typographeo Clarendoniano ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Slings, S. R. Critical Notes on Plato’s Politeia, ed. G. Boter and J. M. van Ophuijsen. Leiden, 2005.
  • ΠολιτείαPlato. Platonis Opera, ed. John Burnet. Oxford University Press. 1903.
  • Republic. Plato. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. 5 & 6 translated by Paul Shorey. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969.
    • The Republic. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Translated by Tom Griffith. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    • The Republic of Plato. Translated by Allan Bloom. New York, 1968, 1991.
    • Republic. Translated by Reeve. Indianapolis, 2004.
    • The Republic of Plato. Edited by James Adam. Volume 1 & 2. Cambridge University Press 1902, 2009.
  • Plato Valtio. Platon: Teokset IV. Suomentanut Marja Itkonen-Kaila. Otava, Helsinki 1981.
  • La République. Translated by G. Leroux. Paris, 2002.
  • Der Staat (Über das Gerechte). Translated by R. Rufener. Zürich, Düsseldorf, 2000.
  • Sartori, F., trans. Platone: La Repubblica. Translated by F. Santori. Introduction by M. Vegetti. Rome, 1966, 1997.

 

BOOK I (327a-354c): APORIA OF JUSTICE 

What is Righteousness, Uprightness (δικαιοσύνη, dikaiosyne)

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Descent to the Piraeus: Thracian Fest

Cephalus. Justice of the Older Generation  (328b–331d)

  • Justice (dikaiosunē) as truthfulness (alētheia) and paying back what one has received from anyone.

Polemarchus. Justice of the Middle Generation (331e–336a)

  • Justice (dikaiosunē) as doing good to friends and bad (kakos) to enemies

Thrasymachus. Justice of the Sophist (336b-339b)

  • Justice is as the advantage of the stronger (kreissōn)

Justice as a Good and Aporia of Justice (339c-354c)

“Hence the result of the discussion, so far as I am concerned, is that I know nothing. For when I do not know what justice (dikaios) is, I will hardly know whether it is a kind of virtue (aretē) or not, or whether a person who has it is happy (eudaimōn) or unhappy.”

 

BOOK II (357a-383c): INJUSTICE AND JUSTICE

RING

Ring of Gyges

Genesis of the Polis

The City of Pigs

The Guardians (fylakes)

The Muses and education of the souls

 

BOOK III (386a-417b): EDUCATION (paideia)

Baldassarre_Peruzzi_-_Apollo_and_the_Muses

Political Theology

Mimesis (mīmēsis)

The Politics of Muses

The Care of the Body

Noble Lie (gennaion pseudos)

BOOK IV (419a-445e):  THE ORDER OF THE SOUL AND  THE  STATE

Virtues

Cardinal virtues

  • Prudence (φρόνησιςphronēsis)
  • Courage (ἀνδρείαandreia)
  • Temperance (σωφροσύνηsōphrosynē)
  • Justice (δικαιοσύνηdikaiosynē)

Three Orders

Shepherds of the City

Tripartite constitution of the soul

  • Reasonable (λογιστικόν)
  • Passionate (θυμοειδές)
  • Appetitive (ἐπιθυμητικόν)

The Constitution of Men and Polis

 

BOOK V (449a-480a): THE THREE WAVES (κῦμα)

Boucher,_François,_Arion_on_the_Dolphin,_1748

 

Nature (φύσις) (451d-457b)

  • The natural sameness and difference
  • The law of women – according to nature
  • The same pursuits and education – female and male guardians

Common (κοινός) (457c-473c)

  • Communality of guardians, of women and children
  • Regulated sexual intercourse and reproduction

Justice (δίκαιος) (573d – 541)

  • Combination of philosophical and political power (δύναμίς )
  • The philosopher kings

“Philosophers had to become kings or those whom we now call our kings and rulers had to become philosophical so that the political and philosophical power (dunamis te politikē kai philosophia) becomes together.”

Who are the Philosophers?

Dream state and awakening

BOOK VI (484a-511e): THE PHILOSOPHER AND THE GOOD

shipfools The Nature of Philosopher

The Ship of State

The Idea of Good

The Parable of Sun

 

BOOK VII (514a-541b):THE PARABLE OF CAVE

Cave

The Education of Philosopher.

The Allegory of Cave

BOOK VIII (543a-569c): THE DECLINE OF CONSTITUTIONS

“Everything that comes-to-be must decay (ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεὶ γενομένῳ παντὶ φθορά ἐστιν)

Bacchanal_1627_Moses_van_Uyttenbroeck

The origins of the first strife

Five constitutions

  • Philosophical aristocracy
  • Timocracy
  • Oligarchy
  • Democracy
  • The noble Tyranny. The fourth and final malady of a polis

 

BOOK IX (571a-592b): Tyrant and Philosopher

Death_of_Socrates

BOOK X (595a-621d): Mimesis and The Myth of Er 

waters-of-lethe-plains-of-elysium-1880

Rejection of Mimetic Art

Immortality of the Soul

Rewards of Justice

Judgment of the Dead