Schmitt: Writings 1918-1933

Carl Schmitt: Works and writings from Weimar period 1919-1933

Political Romanticism 1919

Where political activity begins, political romanticism ends.”

politischeromant

  • Carl Schmitt-Dorotic: Politische Romantik, Duncker & Humblot, München, Leipzig 1919.
  • 2 Aufl.: Duncker u. Humblot, München, Leipzig 1925,
  • Political Romanticism. Translated from the second edition by Guy Oakes. MIT Press, Cambridge 1986.
  • Poliittinen romantiikka. Ei suom.

 

 

 

 

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Johann Arnold Kanne 1919

Carl Schmitt-Dorotic: Vorwort für: Johann Arnold Kanne: Aus meinem Leben Aufzeichnungen des deutschen Pietisten. Furche, Berlin 1919.


On Karl Kraus 1920

Dr. Negelinus: “Die Fackelkraus.” Dr. Peregrin Steinhövel” [Franz Blei]: Bestiarium Literaricum, das ist: Genaue Beschreibung der Tiere des literarischen Deutschlands, Georg Müller, München 1920, S. 64-66


Dictatorship 1921

There might be a difference between the rule of law in its making and the method of its exercise. In terms of philosophy of law, this is the essence of dictatorship: the general possibility of a separation between the norms of justice and the implementation of law.

vieuzac

  • Schmitt-Dorotic, Carl: Die Diktatur. Von den Anfängen des modernen Souveränitätsgedankens bis zum proletarischen Klassenkampf, München-Leipzig 1921
  • Dictatorship: From the origin of the modern concept of sovereignty to proletarian class struggle. translated by Michael Hoelzl and Graham Ward. Polity Press, Cambridge 2014.
  • Diktatuuri: Modernin suvereenisuusajattelun alusta proletaariseen luokkataisteluun. ei suom.

 

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On political theory and romanticism 1921

  • Carl Schmitt-Dorotic: Politische Theorie und Romantik. Historische Zeitschrift, CXXIII, 1921, 3, S. 377-397.
  • Included in the second edition (1925) of Politische Romantik (1919)

On the Counterrevolutionary Philosophy 1922

  • “Die Staatsphilosophie der Gegenrevolution.” Archiv für Rechts- und Wirtschaftsphilosophie, XVI, 1922, S. 121-131.
    Included in Politische Theologie (1922) chapter 4.

Sociology of the Sovereignty and Political theology 1922

  • “Soziologie des Souveränitätsbegriffes und politische Theologie.” Melchior Palyi (Hg.): Hauptprobleme der Soziologie. Erinnerungsgabe für Max Weber, 2 Bände, Duncker u. Humblot, München, Leipzig 1922- 23.
  • Capters 1-3 in Politische Theologie.

Political Theology 1922

“Sovereign is he who decides on the state of exception.”

“All significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts.”

poliitteol

  • Politische Theologie. Vier Kapitel zur Lehre von der Souveränität, 1922.
  • Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. George D. Schwab, trans. MIT Press, 1985.
    • 1 Definition of Sovereignty
    • 2 The Problem of Sovereignty as the Problem of the Legal Form and of the Decision
    • 3 Political Theology
    • 4 On the Counterrevolutionary Philosophy of the State (de Maistre, Bonald, Donoso Cortes)
  • Poliittinen teologia. Neljä luku suvereenisuusopista.Suomentanut Tapani Hietaniemi. Esipuheet Kaarlo Tuori; Markku Koivusalo & Mika Ojakangas. Tutkijaliitto 1997.

On Weimar constitution 1923

  • “Die Weimarer Reichsverfassung.” Frankfurter Zeitung, Frankfurt/M., Literarische Beilage, 5, 2. März 1923. Review of Leo Wittmayer, Die Weimarer Reichsverfassung. J. C. B. Mohr-Paul Siebeck, Tübingen 1922.

On Parliamentarism 1923

parlamentus

  • Die geistesgeschichtliche Lage des heutigen Parlamentarismus, Duncker & Humblot, München-Leipzig 1923.
  • The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy. Ellen Kennedy, trans. MIT Press, 1988.
    • 1. Democracy and Parliamentarism
    • 2. The Principles of Parliamentarism
    • 3. Dictatorship in Marxist Thought
    • 4. Irrationalist Theories of the Direct Use of Force
  • Nykyisen parlamentarismin aatehistoriallinen asema. Ei suom.

 

Memorable Quotes

“All democratic arguments rest logically on a series of identities.”

“The essence of the democratic principle is preserved, namely, the assertion of an identity between law and the people’s will….Everything depends on how the will of the people is formed.”

“It is essential that liberalism be understood as a consistent, comprehensive metaphysical system.”

“Freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of assembly, freedom of discussion, are not only useful and expedient, therefore, but really life-and-death questions for liberalism.”

mussolini“The world soul that Hegel saw riding by in Jena in 1806 was a soldier, not a Hegelian. It was the representative of the alliance between philosophy and the saber but only from the side of the saber.”

“All modern theories of direct action and the use of force rest more or less consciously on an irrationalist philosophy.”

“The national myth has until today always been victorious.”


Modern Democracy 1923

  • Der Begriff der modernen Demokratie in seinem Verhältnis zum Staatsbegriff. Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik. Tübingen. Vol. 51.1923/24, p. 817-823.
  • The Concept of Modern Democracy in relation to the Concept of State.
  • Modernin demokratian käsite suhteessa valtiokäsitteeseen.

Roman Catholicism 1923

“No political system can survive even a generation with only naked techniques of holding power. To the political belongs the idea, because there is no politics without authority and no authority without an ethos of belief.”

 

  • Römischer Katholizismus und politische Form. Jakob Hegner, Hellerau, 1923.
  • Roman Catholicism and Political Form. G. L. Ulmen, trans. Greenwood Press, 1996.
  • Roomalaiskatolilaisuus ja poliittinen muoto.

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Memorable Quotes

Titien

“There is an anti-Roman temper.”

“The essence of the Roman-Catholic complexio oppositorum lies in a specific, formal superiority over the matter of human life such as no other imperium has ever known. 

“Nature is for them not the antithesis of art and enterprise, also not of intellect and feeling or heart; human labor and organic development, nature and reason, are one. Viniculture is the most beautiful symbol of this union.

“The world-view of the modern capitalist is the same as that of the industrial proletarian, as if the one were the twin brother of the other.”

“In modern economy, a completely irrational consumption conforms to a totally rationalized production.”

“No political system can survive even a generation with only naked techniques of holding power. To the political belongs the idea, because there is no politics without authority and no authority without an ethos of belief.”

“The ability to create form, which is essential to aesthetics, has its essence in the ability to create the language of a great rhetoric.”

“But technical thinking is foreign to all social traditions: the machine has no tradition.”

“Historically considered, “privatization” has its origin in religion.”

“To every great politics belongs the “arcanum.””

“Humanity is such an abstract idea that even Catholicism appears comprehensible by comparison.”


Metaphysical Theory of State 1924

  • “Die metaphysische Staatstheorie.” Wirtschaftsdienst, IX, 25. Juli 1924, S. 986-987. Review of L. T. Hobhouse, Die metaphysische Staatstheorie, Felix Meiner, Leizig 1924 (The Metaphysical Theory of the State. A Criticism, Allen & Unwin, London, Macmillan, New York 1918).

On modern democracy 1924

  • “Der Begriff der modernen Demokratie in seinem Verhältnis zum
    Staatsbegriff.” Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, LI, 3, März 1924,
    S. 817-823.
    Reprinted in Positionen und Begriffe (1940), S. 19-25.

Romantik 1924

  • “Romantik.” Hochland, XXII, 1, November 1924, S. 157-171.
  • Reprinted as Preface of Politische Romantik. Second edition 1925.

On Dictatorship and article 48 of Weimar constitution 1924

  • Die Diktatur des Reichspräsidenten nach Art. 48 der Reichsverfassung. Gerhard Anschütz, Karl Bilfinger, Carl Schmitt und Erwin Jacobi: Der deutsche Föderalismus. Die Diktatur des Reichspräsidenten, Reihe „Veröffentlichungen der Vereinigung der Deutschen Staatsrechtslehrer.” Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Leipzig 1924, S. 63-104.
  • Included in Die Diktatur second edition 1928.

Constitution and politics 1924

  • “Reichsverfassung und Politik. In Schmollers Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft im Deutschen Reiche, XLVII, 1924, S. 349-351. Review of Leo Wittmayer, Reichsverfassung und Politik. J. C. B. Mohr-Paul Siebeck, Tübingen 1923.

“Die Wahlordnung für das Saargebiet vom 29. April 1920. Ein Beitrag zur
Lehre von den Prinzipien rechtlicher Ordnung.” In: Niemeyers Zeitschrift für internationales Recht, XXXIV, 1924, S. 415-420.


“Um das Schicksal des Politischen.” Die Schildgenossen, V, 1924-25, S. 313-322.


Reichspräsident 1925

  • “Reichspräsident und Weimarer Verfassung.” In: Kölnische Volkszeitung, Köln, LXVI, 198, 15. März 1925, S. 1 [Leitartikel].
  • Reprinted in Staat, Großraum, Nomos (1995), S. 24-32.

On State as the Form of Living 1925

  • Der Staat als Lebensform. In Wirtschaftsdienst, Hamburg, 6, 28. Juni 1925, S. 1010. Review of Rudolf Kjellén, Der Staat als Lebensform. Vowinckel, Berlin-Grunewald 1924.

Status Quo and Peace 1925

  • “Der Status quo und der Friede.” Hochland, XXIII, 1, Oktober 1925, S. 1-9. Reprinted in Positionen und Begriffe (1940), S. 33-42.

“Illyrien – Notizen von einer dalmatinischen Reise.” Hochland, XXIII, 3, Dezember 1925, S. 293-298. Reprinted in Staat, Großraum, Nomos (1995), S. 483-490

“Einmaligkeit’ und ,gleicher Anlaß bei der Reichstagsauflösung nach
Artikel 25 der Reichsverfassung.” Archiv des öffentlichen Rechts, VIII, 1925, S. 162-174.

“Die Kernfrage des Völkerbundes.” Schmollers Jahrbuch, XLVIII, 1925, 4, S. 1-26.

“Studies in the History of Political Philosophy before and after Rousseau.'” Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1925, 43, Sp. 2086-2090. Review of Charles Edwin Vaughan, Studies in the History of Political Philosophy before and after Rousseau. Longmans, Green & Co., London 1925.

“Essai sur l’emploi du sentiment religieuse.” Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1925, 47, Sp. 2308-2310. Review of Marie-Anne Cochet, Essai sur l’emploi du sentiment
religieux comme base d’autorité politique du IIIe au XXe siècle, Presses universitaires de France, Paris 1925.

“Betrachtungen über Frankreich. Über den schöpferischen Urgrund der
Staatsverfassungen.”‘ Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, LXXIX, 1925,4, S. 727-728. Review of Joseph de Maistre, Betrachtungen über Frankreich.
Über den schöpferischen Urgrund der Staatsverfassungen, hg. von
Peter Richard Rohden, Reimar Hobbing, Berlin 1924. Tarnslation of Considérations
sur la France. Essai sur le principe générateur des Constitutions politiques,
Potey, Paris 1821.

“Neue Herrschaftsformen im Kampf um den Rhein.” Hans Heinrich Schmidt-Voigt, Hermann Platz und Martin Havenstein (Hg.), Deutsche Kultur. Ein Lesebuch von deutscher Art und Kunst für die Oberstufe höherer Schulen, Moritz Diesterweg, Frankfurt/M. 1925, S. 142-145.

Zu Friedrich Meineckes ,Idee der Staatsräson. Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, LVI, 1926, 1, S. 226- 234. Reprinted in Positionen und Begriffe (1940), S. 45-52.

“Eine französische Kritik der Zeit.” Wirtschaftsdienst. Weltwirtschaftliche Nachrichten, XI, 18,7. Mai 1926, S. 593-594.Review of Lucien Romier, Explication de notre temps,
Bernard Grasset, Paris 1925.

Der Gegensatz von Parlamentarismus und moderner Massendemokratie.
Hochland, XXIII, 9, Juni 1926, S. 257-270.


The Concept of the Political (1927-1933)

“The specific political distinction to which political actions and motives can be reduced is that between friend and enemy.”

politischen

  • ”Der Begriff des Politischen” Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik 58 (1927), 1–33; Der Begriff des Politischen. Duncker & Huboldt, München-Leibniz 1932.
  • The Concept of the Political. George D. Schwab, trans. University of Chicago Press, 1996. Expanded edition 2006, with an Introduction by Tracy B. Strong.
  • Poliittisen käsite. Suomentaneet Arto Kuusterä & Jussi Palmusaari. Tutkijaliitto, Helsinki 2015.

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Memorable Quotes

“The concept of the state presupposes the concept of the political.”

”All political concepts, images, and terms have a polemical meaning.

“The specific political distinction to which political actions and motives can be reduced is that between friend and enemy.”

“The distinction of friend and enemy denotes the utmost degree of intensity of a union or separation, of an association or dissociation.”

“Every religious, moral, economic, ethical, or other antithesis transforms into a political one if it is sufficiently strong to group human beings effectively according to friend and enemy.”

“The political world is a pluriverse, not a universe.”

“Humanity as such cannot wage war because it has no enemy, at least not on this planet.”

“To demand seriously of human beings that they kill others and be prepared to die themselves so that trade and industry may flourish for the survivors or that the purchasing power of grandchildren may grow is sinister and crazy.”

“War is condemned but executions, sanctions, punitive expeditions, pacifications, protection of treaties, international police, and measures to assure peace remain. The adversary is thus no longer called an enemy but a disturber of peace and is thereby designated to be an outlaw of humanity. A war waged to protect or expand economic power must, with the aid of propaganda, turn into a crusade and into the last war of humanity.”

Donoso Cortés 1929

  • “Donoso Cortés in Berlin.” Wiederbegegnum von Kirche un Kultur in Deutschland: Eine Gabe Für Karl Muth. Kösel und Pustet, München 1927, 338-73.
  • Donoso Cortés in Berlin. Telos 125, 2002, 88-99.

Constitutional theory 1928

“A concept of the constitution is only possible when one distinguishes constitution and constitutional law.”

verfassung

  • Verfassungslehre. Duncker und Humblot, München-Leipzig, 1928.
  • Constitutional Theory. Jeffrey Seitzer, trans. Duke University Press, 2007.
    • 1. Concept of the Constitution
    • 2. The Rechtsstaat Component of the Modern Constitution
    • 3. The Political Component of the Modern Constitution
    • 4. Constitutional Theory of the Federation
  • Oppi valtiomuodosta 1928.

 

 

Quotes 

”Constitution in the Absolute Sense can mean, to begin with, the concrete manner of existenverfassungfarncece that is a given with every political unity.”

“Constitution in a relative sense means the individual constitutional law.”

“The constitution in the positive sense originates from an act of the constitution-making power.”

“The constitution-making power is the political will, whose power or authority is capable of making the concrete, comprehensive decision over the type and form of its own political existence.”

“The constitution of the modern bourgeois Rechtsstaat is always a mixed constitution.”

“Representation can occur only in the public sphere. There is no representation that occurs in secret and between two people, and no representation that would be a “private matter.”

“Representation is not a normative event, a process, and a procedure. It is, rather, something existential.”

“Democracy’s precise state form can be grounded only on a precise and substantial concept of equality.”

weimar“The democratic concept of equality is a political concept and, like every genuine political concept, includes the possibility of a distinction.”

“The democratic concept of law is a political, not a Rechtsstaat-based, concept of law. It stems from the potestas of the people and means that law is everything that the people intends: lex est quod populus jussit.”


Donoso Cortés 1929

  • ‘Der unbekannte Donoso Cortés.’ Hochland 27, no.12, 1929.
  • The Unknown Donoso Cortés. Telos 125, 2002, 80-86.
  • Tuntematon Donoso Cortés.

Neutralizations and Depoliticizations 1929

“All concepts of spiritual field, including the concept of mind, are pluralistic and can only be understood in terms of concrete political existence.”

  • “Die europäische Kultur im Zwischenstadium der Neutralisierung.”Europäische Revue, vol. 5, no. 8 (1929), 517-30. “Das Zeitalter der Neutralisierungen und Entpolitisierungen.” Carl Schmitt, Der Begriff des Politischen: Text von 1932 mit einem Vorwort und drei Corollarien. Dunker & Humblot, Berlin 1963, 79-95.
  • The Age of Neutralizations and Depoliticizations. Translated by Matthias Konzett and John P. McCormick. Telos, Summer 93, Issue 96.
    • 1. The Successive Stages of Changing Central Spheres
    • 2. The Stages of Neutralization and Depoliticizations
  • Neutralisointien ja depolitisointien aika. Teoksessa Poliittisen käsite. Tutkijaliitto, Helsinki 2015.

mchineage“When the decisive moment arrives, the legitimating foreground vanishes like an empty phantom.”

“The 20th century began as the age not only of technology but of a religious belief in technology.”

“All concepts of spiritual field, including the concept of mind, are pluralistic and can only be understood in terms of concrete political existence.”

“All essential concepts of spiritual sphere are not normative but existential.”

“As the centre of spiritual life has continuously shifted in the last four centuries, so have all concepts and words.”

“Technology is always only an instrument and weapon; precisely because it serves all, it is not neutral. No single decision can be derived from the immanence of technology, least of all for neutrality.”

“It is the belief in an activist metaphysics — the belief in unlimited power and the domination of man over nature, even over human nature; the belief in the unlimited “receding of natural boundaries,” in the unlimited possibilities for change and prosperity. Such a belief can be called fantastic and satanic, but not simply dead, spiritless or mechanized soullessness.”


State-ethics 1930

  • Staatsethik und pluralistischer Staat.  In “Kantstudien”, 35 (1930), S. 28-42.
  • Ethic of State and Pluralistic State. In Mouffe: The Challange of Carl Schmitt. Verso 1999.
  • Valtioetiikka ja pluralistinen valtio.

Guardian of the constitution 1931.

“A guardian of the constitution already exists, namely the president of Reich.”

 

  • Der Hüter der Verfassung. W. Rothschild, Berlin-Grunewald 1931.
  • Guardian of the constitution.
  • Valtiosäännön vartija. Ei suom.

“The respective centre of the state openly comes to light in a so-called ‘state of exception.”

 

 

 

 


Total State 1931

  • “Die Wendung zum totalen Staat.” Europäische Revue 7, no. 4, 1931, 241-250
  • The way to total state. In Carl Schmitt: Four Articles. Plutarch Press, Washington 1991.
  • Käänne totaaliseen valtioon. Ei suom.

Legality and Legitimacy 1932

  • Legalität und Legitimität. Duncker & Humblot, München und Leipzig 1932.
  • Legality and Legitimacy. Translated by Jeffrey Seitzer. Duke University Press, 2004.
  • Laillisuus ja legitimiteetti. Eu suom.